Дремлющие гиганты: самые большие и опасные вулканы

Ученые выделяют 7 действительно гигантских вулканов, каждый из которых таит в себе колоссальную опасность для целых стран и даже континентов

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Одним из наиболее противоречивых творений природы по праву можно назвать вулканы: в спящем виде они вызывают восхищение и трепет, но стоит им пробудиться ото сна, тут же превращаются в жестоких разрушителей, сметая на своем пути все живое. Так, ученые выделяют 7 действительно гигантских вулканов, каждый из которых таит в себе колоссальную опасность для целых стран и даже континентов.

Первую строчку в рейтинге занимает Массив Таму: самый огромный вулкан на планете дремлет на дне Тихого океана. В высоту он примерно вдвое ниже своего “собрата” Мауна-Лоа — всего лишь 4,46 километра, но зато объемом обладает самым внушительным — более 2,5 миллионов кубических километров. К слову, открыт он был совсем недавно, всего три года назад. По словам ученых, в последний раз Массив Таму извергался приблизительно 144 миллионов лет назад, став виновником образования большого разлома, разделяющего Японию и современную территорию США. Данный вулкан не просто занимает первую ступень в списке наиболее крупных и глубоких вулканов на Земле — в Солнечной системе ему также практически нет равных.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Вторым среди гигантов оказался Мауна-Лоа, “обитающий” на Гавайях. Вулкан объемом 70 тысяч кубических километров на горных массивах гавайских островов не один: кроме него там расположены еще четыре более мелких вулкана. За последнюю тысячу лет его извержение происходило более 30 раз, и последнее припало на начало девятнадцатого века, стерев с лица планеты целую деревню. Геологи сходятся во мнении, что гавайские острова образовались именно благодаря лаве, извергнутой когда-то Мауна-Лоа.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

На третьем месте в рейтинге расположился небезызвестный гигант Килиманджаро, дремлющий в Африке. Его формируют целых три вулкана, выстроившиеся над Кенией и Танзанией. Принципиальное отличие Килиманджаро от двух предыдущих великанов состоит в том, что он относится к активным вулканам. И хотя его последнее извержение случилось 360 000 лет назад, научные работники прогнозируют новую активность в течение ближайших ста лет. Такие выводы были сделаны после того, как ученые обнаружили под вершиной горы Кибо расплавленную лаву. Теперь эксперты пытаются спрогнозировать точную дату извержения, которое способно погубить практически всю Африку.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Четвертую ступень в списке опаснейших гигантов занял Сьерра Негра. Вулкан, имеющий щитовидную форму, залегает на острове Исабела в Галапагосском архипелаге и возвышается на высоту 1 124 метров над уровнем моря. Сьерра Негра может похвастать объемом более 580 кубических километров и является обладателем второго по размеру кратера на нашей планете. Активность вулкана не утихает, а ее существенное увеличение обнаружилось в 2005 году, когда из кратера начали валить облака дыма. Последнее же извержение Сьерра Негра произошло приблизительно 350 лет назад. Стоит отметить, что данный вулкан стал одним из создателей Исабелы — самого крупного из всех Галапагосских островов.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

На пятом месте ТОПа оказался один из самых больших действующих вулканов на территории России, полуострове Камчатка – Ичинская Сопка, “поселившийся” среди 29-ти своих активных, но более мелких собратов в центральной части полуострова Камчатка. Гигант имеет объем более 450 кубических километров и за последние 10 000 лет успел извергнуть более 15 миллионов тонн лавы и пепла. Совсем недавно научные работники выяснили, что сели от таяния льда указывают на возрастание активности вулкана. Но при этом эксперты утверждают, что Ичинская Сопка пока никак не угрожает обитателям Камчатки.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Шестое место в рейтинге занимает Везувий, действующий вулкан на юге Италии — тот самый вулкан, который в 79 году нашей эры смел с лица планеты Помпеи. Специалисты до сих пор обнаруживают тела обитателей древнего города, которые не сумели убежать от раскаленной лавы. Если верить исследованиям ученых, вулкан активничает и по сей день. По прогнозам, масштабное извержение может произойти не быстрее, чем через 200 лет, потому как кратер Везувия укрывает огромный слой отложений. В ХХ веке этот гигант стал причиной полного разрушения Сан-Себастьяно и Массуса, в которых обитали приблизительно 5400 и 3100 человек. Что любопытно, вулканическая почва является чрезвычайно плодородной, а потому в древние времена люди регулярно засаживали территорию у подножья вулкана самыми разнообразными сельскохозяйственными культурами. К сожалению, Везувий не был благосклонен к местным жителям, уничтожая такие посевы более 70 раз.

Благодаря своей непрекращающейся активности, данный гигант находится под пристальным вниманием ученых и потому является наиболее изученным и предсказуемым из всех вулканов. Возле Везувия располагается масштабный национальный парк, который каждый год принимает многотысячные толпы гостей со всех уголков планеты.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Завершает ТОП Йеллоустоун, расположенный на территории Йеллоустоунского национального парка, США. Специалисты относят его к разряду супервулканов: по размерам и мощности он в три раза превышает обычные вулканы, являясь самым сильным и мощным на Земле. В 2006 ученые отметили поднятие почвы на 4-6 см в год. Кроме того, на дне Йеллоустоунского озера сформировался достаточно странный рельефный конус. Все эти метаморфозы привели к немалому беспокойству научных работников, и мир заговорил о масштабном извержении, которое может произойти в самое ближайшее время. Специалисты пришли к выводу, что когда-то Йеллоустоун уже извергался с огромнейшей силой. На данный момент этот вулкан не таит в себе опасности для обитателей ближайших регионов.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

ЕЩЕ ПО ТЕМЕ

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Топ 10 самых страшных мест планеты

Топ 10 самых страшных мест планеты

В стремлении найти нечто новое, неизведанное и, по возможности, леденящее кровь, мы предлагаем вам обойти самые пугающие музеи мира.

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Самые разрушительные извержения вулканов

Самые разрушительные извержения вулканов

Кто не слышал о Везувии и Помпее? История этой трагедии прошла сквозь века, и все мы слышали о ней, пусть и не знаем деталей. Извержения вулканов в густо заселенных регионах всегда сопровождались разрушениями и трагедиями…

Дремлющие гиганты:  самые большие  и опасные вулканы

Вулканические озера разных стран

Вулканические озера разных стран

По завершению извержения вулкана кратер забивается вулканической массой, обломками горной породы. Образуется пробка, которая закрывает кратер очень плотно. И в кратере начинает скапливаться вода, и образуется озеро.

Источник: menslife.com

38 комментариев

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